Saturday, 21 March 2015

Bharatiya Saur Calender System: ( Indian National Calendar )

Navi Mumbai, Dated:  Bharatiya Saur : Chaitra 1, 1937          ( i.e. March 22,  2015):

         Today, 21st March is Gudi Padwa, a very auspicious and  new year day as per Hindu Calender. However, 22nd March , as per Indian National Calendar- Bhartiya Saur- is Chaitra 1, of the year Saka 1937, a New Year Day. So let me wish all of you, a very happy and prosperous  new year i.e. Saka 1937.  
         We  know about the national bird, national animal. etc; but, how  many are aware of the national Calendar of India ? It is effective from 21st march 1957.   We are used to Gregorian Calender so much so, that we find it 'inconvenient', to  use any other calendar instead.  However, I feel proud to use  Indian national calendar, henceforth called 'Bharatiya Saur Calender', for many reasons.
        The Indian National Calender (sometimes called Saka calender), is the official civil calender in use in India.  The Saka calender is also used in Java, and Bali among Indonesian Hindus.  Nyepi, the "day of Silence" is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. 
    Firstly it is the most scientific calender ever created. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. It was Saha’s effort, which led to the formation of the Committee. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, which could be adopted uniformly throughout India. It was a mammoth task. The Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. There were thirty different calendars. The task was further complicated by the fact that with calendar religion and local sentiments were involved. India's first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee said “They (different calendars) represent past political divisions in the country…now that we have attained Independence, it is obviously desirable that there should be a certain uniformity in the calendar for our civic, social and other purposes and this should be done on a scientific approach to this problem.” 

            We carry an impression that the present Gregorian calendar is flawless and does not need any correction. The reality is far from this.  Look at the names of the months "September", "October",  "November" and "December". By meaning of the names, these should have been 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th month of the year, respectively. Are they ?  In fact, they were so, in the past, till "intrusion" of the months "July" and "August" after  Roman Emperors Julius Ceaser, and Augustus. So, political interference has already flawed the Gregorian calender. However, more than the names, the major flaw with Gregorian Calendar,  is that, it is not in sync with the climatic changes. Nothing special happens on 1st january, climatically.  Ideally, a Calender need to be in perfect sync with the change of seasons.  
              Architect Sanjay Mahashabde, has shared very valuable inputs in this regard on his site .  According to him, the Moon has no place in the exclusive solar time measurement system. While in the exclusive Lunar Time Measurement System, the Sun is thrown to winds. The time management system can be divided in two ways; viz. Lunar Time Measurement system for religious purposes, and Solar Time management system for social and practical purposes. The cycle of seasons is totally dependent  on  the Sun and the mainstay of all religions is the moon. The Hindu religious belief is that, the Sun influences the outer life i.e.  body, whereas, the moon influences the  mental activity.   The Indian national calendar is based on solar movements, and therefore is in tune with the change of seasons. 
             Names of the 12 months of the Indian Civil Calendar and Correlation with Gregorian Calendar :

  * Leap years

               The Reserve Bank of India has mandated the use of Bharatiya Saur Calendar by banks and financial organizations to accept legal cheques bearing dates as per Bhartiya Saur Calendar.  Ignorance, unawareness, and lack of availability of such calendars could be some reasons, for non usage of this Calendar. Efforts are needed to create awareness about the usage of this scientific calendar in day to day activities. The difficulties we foresee, to a large extent, are in our mind only.  We should take pride in promoting the Bharatiya Saur Calendar and be instrumental in spreading the knowledge about this Calendar.  Let's see the result !
                     Jai Hind !